Symphony No. 4 in F minor, op. 36
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, percussion, strings
notes by James Keays
I. Andante sostenuto — Moderato con anima — Moderato assai, quasi Andante — Allegro vivo
II. Andantino in modo di canzona
III. Scherzo: Pizzicato ostinato — Allegro
IV. Finale: Allegro con fuoco
Composed 1877-1878. First performance: February 22, 1878, Moscow. Nikolai Rubinstein, conductor.
There is general agreement among scholars that Tchaikovsky suffered through frequent emotional crises, particularly during the time he composed his Symphony No. 4.It appears that this crisis was caused by dramatically different relationships with two women. One was Nadezhda von Meck, who provided Tchaikovsky with the opportunity to share his innermost feelings. The other was Antonina Milyukova, his partner in an ill-conceived and impossible marriage.
The first relationship began in December 1876, when Tchaikovsky accepted a commission from the wealthy widow von Meck and saw it blossom into an extraordinary fourteen year affair maintained entirely by correspondence. All personal contact was avoided, and each served as a fantasy figure for the other, their common bond being a revulsion against physical relations with the opposite sex. Nadezhda provided a generous annual stipend and both poured out their feelings in volumes of letters. It was during this highly emotional period, the spring of 1877, that Tchaikovsky began work on his Symphony No. 4. He dedicated the work to her, described it as “ours,” and confessed in writing “how much I thought of you with every bar.”
In late April or early May 1877, Tchaikovsky received a written declaration of love from Antonina Milyukova, who claimed to have met him as a student at the Conservatory. He immediately rejected her offer but later changed his mind. Perhaps he was moved by the similar plight of Tatyana in the Pushkin novel Eugene Onegin, a work that was firing his imagination at the time and would become an opera of the same name.
He might have taken the advice of well-meaning friends who hoped the relationship would provide a “cure.” The marriage took place in July. Tchaikovsky made an attempt at suicide in September. Throughout all of this emotional turmoil, he continued to pour out his feelings to Madame von Meck and worked feverishly on Symphony No. 4 and Eugene Onegin.
The premiere of the symphony took place the following February to mixed reviews. It was presented as an abstract work, but for the benefit of Madame von Meck, Tchaikovsky provided a “private” program. In it, he describes the opening fanfare as “Fate, the fatal power which hinders one in the pursuit of happiness.” It returns again and again to mark off the principle sections of the movement. The second movement shows “another phase of sadness. One mourns the past and has neither the courage nor the will to begin a new life.” The pizzicato figures in the scherzo “are capricious arabesques, vague figures, which slip into the imagination when one has taken wine and is slightly intoxicated: military music is heard passing in the distance.”
The finale is explained in part as follows: “If you have no pleasure in yourself, look about you. Go to the people. See how they can enjoy life and give themselves up entirely to festivity.” Tchaikovsky concludes this most personal of all his large-scale works with a restatement of the “fate” theme which tries unsuccessfully to silence the folk songs and marches of the people. The program ends with the words, “Rejoice in the happiness of others and you can still live.”
notes by Dr. Philip Hoch
Another notable Russian composer from the late Romantic period to receive international recognition was Pyotr Illych Tchaikovsky. His works are known for his unique ability to combine classical aesthetics with theatrics, as evident in his ballet The Nutcracker. Many have tried, but none can compare to the ingenuity of Tchaikovsky in achieving such a feat. Though celebrated today, Tchaikovsky endured many hardships in his life.
Born in Votkinsk, Russia, to a family in the engineering profession, Tchaikovsky had few music-based opportunities at his disposal. Russian culture did not foster an environment where music was a sustainable career. Instead, Tchaikovsky began school with aspirations to become a lawyer. However, he felt music was his purpose and left that career path for his true passion. He joined the Russian Musical Society, an organization whose purpose was to teach music fundamentals to aspiring students. He was later awarded the position of Professor of Music Theory at the prized Moscow Conservatory, where he continued to be exposed to composition disciplines, ultimately discovering his distinctive musical voice.
Tchaikovsky’s style explores various themes, patterns, and dynamics in one cohesive work. His works convey various aesthetics, from light and airy qualities to extraordinary and bombastic fanfares. Though reminiscent of Classical and Romantic ideals, Tchaikovsky intertwines Russian folk tunes, allowing his works to be a nationalistic representation of his heritage. These attributes can be identified in many of his pieces, including Symphony No. 4 in F Minor, op. 36
Tchaikovsky composed the four-movement Symphony between 1877 and 1878 in Moscow. He dedicated it to his then patroness (and later wife), Nadezhda von Meck. He wrote this Symphony as a reconciliation gift in hopes that she still loved him. The composer notes the Symphony as “ours,” meaning both von Meck and Tchaikovsky took ownership of the work together—a more intimate gesture than humble gratitude.
The first movement, Andante Sostenuto—Moderato con anima—Moderato assai, quasi Andante—Allegro Vivo, is what the composer calls “Fate,” equating this as “the fatal power which prevents one from attaining the goal of happiness … There is nothing to be done but to submit to it and lament in vain.” Tchaikovsky embodies these emotions through a series of unique patterns and textures. The movement opens with the horns and winds that transition into a segment with slow syncopation. “Lightning bolt” chords are loudly played, followed by silence. A romantic melody emerges in the strings with a gently-swaying waltz feel. The “Fate” motif enters with the French horns and is expanded through variations and instrumental changes.
Andantino in modo di Canzona is a beautiful slow movement rich with melancholy. Iconic to this movement is the opening theme played by the oboe in B-flat minor, alluding to Tchaikovsky’s grieving heart. The third movement, Scherzo: Pizzicato ostinato—Allegro, counteracts the melancholy with its witty use of a minuet and trio. Here the strings perform lively figurations entirely with pizzicato. After the frenzied opening, a trio section emerges where the winds perform a cheerful dance.
A vigorous Allegro con fuoco concludes the Symphony where Tchaikovsky implements a Russian folk song, “In the Field Stood a Birch Tree.” The movement also recalls the “Fate” theme in attempts to silence the inevitable fate of Tchaikovsky’s heartbreak. The two themes collaborate to create a bombastic ending through a journey exploring distant key areas. After more “lightning bolt” chords, the movement culminates towards a chaotic yet vibrant climax in F major.
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More Pieces by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
- 1812 Overture
- Andante cantabile from Symphony No. 5
- Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat Minor, op. 23
- Serenade in C Major, op. 48
- Suite from The Nutcracker, op. 71a
- Swan Lake Suite, op. 20a
- Symphony No. 5 in E minor, op. 64
- Symphony No. 6 in B minor, op. 74 Pathétique
- Piano Concerto No. 2 in G major, op. 44
- The Nutcracker, op. 71
- Violin Concerto in D major, op. 35